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APPENDICES

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Appendix A--Wood Species Identification Report

Appendix B--Estimate of Cost

Appendix C--Plan, Truss and Cross Section Drawings

Appendix D--VTrans Preliminary Hydraulic Study

Appendix E--Archeological Resource Assessment


APPENDIX A
Wood Species Identification Report

Memorandum

Date: January 25, 2006

To: Sean James, P.E.
       Project Manager
       Hoyle, Tanner & Associates
       150 Dow Stree
       Manchester, NH 03101

From: Doug Gardner
          Professor of Wood Science
          AEWC Center

Subject: Identification of 15 bridge timber wood samples from Bath Village Covered Bridge, E. Fairfield Covered Bridge and Hectorville Covered Bridge.

Following are my findings relative to the identification of the bridge timber wood species samples you sent to me on January 20, 2006. I relied on my background in wood identification, and the Key to Gross Identification found in the Textbook of Wood Technology, 4th Edition by Panshin and De Zeeuw (ISBN 0-07-048441-4) in making my evaluations. Identification of the wood samples was made using a 10x hand lens.

Samples Identified
A summary of the wood species identified are listed in Table 1 along with comments related to the nature of the samples. More details about each sample are described below.

Table 1. Summary of wood species identified comprising wooden bridge members.

Sample Label Wood Species  Comments
Hutchins CB Deck Eastern Hemlock   
Hutchins CB Chord  Eastern Hemlock  Cubical brown rot decay
Hutchins CB Trunnel Hard Maple  Insect attack (holes)
Hutchins CB Lattice Spruce   
East Fairfield CB Floor Beam Fir/Hemlock Superficial insect attack
East Fairfield CB Deck  Eastern Hemlock Brittle 
East Fairfield CB Rafter  Spruce/Fir Slow growth >40 rings per ½ inch 
East Fairfield CB Chord Spruce  
East Fairfield CB Stringer  Eastern Hemlock  
Bath Village Bridge - Old Floor Beam Eastern Hemlock  
Bath Village Bridge - Diagonal  Spruce Creosote Treated 
Bath Village Bridge - Deck Spruce  
Bath Village Bridge - Chord  Spruce/Fir Creosote Treated 
Bath Village Bridge - Trunnel White Oak  
Bath Village Bridge - New Floor Beam  Hemlock Creosote Treated

Wood species in italics are best estimations based on nature of samples.

  1. Hutchins C B Deck: Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): wood tended to be brittle and exhibited an abrupt transition from earlywood to latewood in the growth increments.
  2. Hutchins C B Chord: Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): wood tended to be brittle and exhibited an abrupt transition from earlywood to latewood in the growth increments. Sample also exhibited signs of cubical brown rot wood decay.
  3. Hutchins C B Trunnel: Hard Maple (Acer saccharinum): wood was diffuse porous hardwood. Outer margin of growth ring was dark brown in color. Wood had some signs of insect attack (holes 1116th inch in diameter). Possibly powder post beetle attack.
  4. Hutchins C B Lattice Spruce (Picea spp.). wood yellowish-white-brown and contains resin canals, exhibits a gradual transition between the earlywood and latewood in the growth increment.
  5. East Fairfield C B Floor Beam: Either Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) or Fir (Abies spp.): wood did not contain resin canals and the transition from earlywood to latewood tended to be semiabrupt which is characteristic of both species.
  6. East Fairfield C B Deck: Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): wood tended to be brittle and exhibited an abrupt transition from earlywood to latewood in the growth increments.
  7. East Fairfield C B Rafter: Either Spruce (Picea spp.) or Fir (Abies spp.): the slow growth of this sample (greater than 40 rings per 'is inch) precluded positive identification. The transition from earlywood to latewood appeared to be gradual and this is a characteristic of both species.
  8. East Fairfield C B Chord: Spruce (Picea spp.). wood yellowish-white-brown and contains resin canals, exhibits a gradual transition between the earlywood and latewood in the growth increment.
  9. East Fairfield C B Stringer: Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): wood tended to be brittle and exhibited an abrupt transition from earlywood to latewood in the growth increments.
  10. Bath Village Bridge -Old Floor Beam: Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): wood tended to be brittle and exhibited an abrupt transition from earlywood to latewood in the growth increments.
  11. Bath Village Bridge - Diagonal: Spruce (Picea spp.). wood contains resin canals, exhibits a gradual transition between the earlywood and latewood in the growth increment. Sample was treated with creosote.
  12. Bath Village Bridge - Deck: Spruce (Picea spp.). wood yellowish-white-brown and contains resin canals, exhibits a gradual transition between the earlywood and latewood in the growth increment.
  13. Bath Village Bridge - Chord: Either Spruce (Picea spp.) or Fir (Abies spp.): This sample was creosote treated and the small sample size precluded positive identification. The transition from earlywood to latewood appeared to be gradual and this is a characteristic of both species.
  14. Bath Village Bridge - Trunnel: White Oak (Quercus spp.): Ring porous hardwood with the earlywood vessels containing tyloses.
  15. Bath Village Bridge - New Floor Beam: Most likely Eastern Hemlock (Tsuga canadensis): wood tended to be brittle and exhibited an abrupt transition from earlywood to latewood in the growth increments. This sample was completely saturated with creosote which precluded positive identification.

My consulting fee is $50 per sample, so the cost for this wood sample identification is $750.00. Payment can be made to Douglas J. Gardner, 484 Day Road Brewer, ME 04412

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APPENDIX B
Estimate of Cost
Vermont Agency of Transportation


Estimate

Estimated Cost: $455,000.00

Contingency: 5.00%

Estimated Total: $477,750.00

East Fairfield Covered Bridge, Fairfield, VT - Fairfield BHO 1448(32) Bridge No. 41, Town Highway No. 42 Letting

Date: 08/01/06

Spec Year: 01

Unit System: E

Work Type: COVERED BRIDGE REHABILITATION

Highway Type: LOCAL

Urban/Rural Type: RURAL

Season: CONSTRUCTION SEASON BIDS (4/15 -10/15) County: FRANKLIN COUNTY

Prepared by hta on 05/02/06


Estimate, Group 0001: Roadway - Total: $68,130.00

 Description  Quantity/Units  Unit Price  Extension
 Clearing and Grubbing  1.000 LS  $2,000.00  $2,000.00
 Common Excavation  40.000 CY  $20.00  $800.00
 Subbase of Gravel  40.000 CY  $40.00  $1,600.00
 Bituminous Concrete Pavement  50.000 TON  $110.00  $5,500.00
 Bridge Approach Railing  180.000 LF  $130.00  $23,400.00
 All Purpose Excavator Rental,Type I  5.000 HR  $75.00  $375.00
 Mobilization  1.000 LS  $31,045.00  $31,045.00
 Geotextile for Silt Fence  100.000 SY  $8.00  $800.00
 Haybales for Erosion Controll  300.00 EACH  $7.00  $2,100.00
 Seed  10.000 LB  $6.00  $60.00
 Fertilizer  5.000 LB  $10.00  $50.00
 Topsoil  10.000 CY  $40.00  $400.00

Estimate, Group 0002: Superstructure - Total: $357,370.00

 Description  Quantity/Units  Unit Price Extension
 Structure Excavation  30.000 CY  $30.00  $900.00
 Granular Backfill for Structures  30.000 CY  $50.00  $1,500.00
 Concrete Class B  10.000 CY  $750.00  $7,500.00
 Shoring Superstructure  1.000 LS  $55,000.00  $50,000.00
 Reinforcing Steel  2,500.000 LB  $3.00  $7,500.00
 Drilling and Grouting Dowels  70.000 LF  $20.00  $1,400.00
 Epoxy Coated Reinforcing Steel  550.000 LB  $4.00  $2,200.00
 Structural Painting  1.000 LS  $20,000.00  $20,000.00
 Containment & Environmental Protection, Field  1.000 LS  $5,000.00  $5,000.00
 Water Repellent  10.000 Gal  $50.00  $500.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (roof boards)  0.500 MFBM  $8,000.00  $4,000.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (rafters, et al)  0.400 MFBM  $9,000.00  $3,600.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (Top Lateral X-Bracing)  1.100 MFBM  $15,000.00  $16,500.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (bed timbers/lower lateral bracing)  0.200 MFBM  $7,000.00  $1,400.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (Stringers)  4.000 MFBM  $9,000.00  $36,000.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (floor beams)  0.400 MFBM  $9,000.00  $3,600.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (truss bottom chord)  2.200 MFBM  $9,000.00  $39,600.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (siding supports)  0.200 MFBM  $7,000.00  $1,400.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-untreated (misc. repairs)  1.000 LS  $10,000.00  $10,000.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-ntreated (sawn decking)  3.800 MFBM  $7,000.00  $26,600.00
 Structural Lumber & Timber-ntreated (wood curbing)  1.100 MFBM  $7,000.00  $7,700.00
 Non-strutural Lumber-Untreated (siding)  1.600 MFBM  $6,000.00  $9,600.00
 Partial Remover of Structure  1.000 LS  $15,000.00  $15,000.00
 Repair of Concrete Substructure Surface Class II  12.000 SY  $1,000.00  $12,000.00
 Overhead and Vertical Concrete Repair Material  10.000 CF  $1,000.00  $10,000.00
 Repointing Masonry  25.000 SY  $130.00  $3,250.00
 Metal Roofing  1,500,000 SF  $10.00  $15,000.00
 Traffic Signs, Type A  62.000 SF  $10.00  $620.00
 Street Lighting (protectowire)  1.000 LS  $8,000.00  $8,000.00
 Wingwall Reconstruction  1.000 LS  $12,000.00  $12,000.00
 Wingwall Reconstruction (Mod.)  1.000 LS  $20,000.00  $20,000.00

Estimate, Group 0003: Full Construction Engineering Items - Total: $29,500.00

 Temporary Traffic Barrier  40.000 LF  $50.00  $2,000.00
 Field Office-Engineers  1.000 LS  $20,000.00  $20,000.00
 FieldOffice-Soils & Materials  1.000 LS  $3,000.00  $3,000.00
 Testing Equipment-Concrete  1.000 LS  $2,000.00  $2,000.00
 Testing Equipment-Bituminous  1.000 LS  $2,000.00  $2,000.00
 Field Office-Telephone  1.000 LS  $500.00  $500.00

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APPENDIX C
Plan, Truss and Cross Section Drawings

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Plan View of Existing Conditions
Plan View of Existing Conditions
North Truss
North Truss
South Truss
South Truss
Typical Portal Section
Typical Portal Section

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APPENDIX D
VTrans Preliminary Hydraulic Study

VT AGENCY OF TRANSPORTATION             PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT DIVISION

HYDRAULICS UNIT

 TO:  John Weaver, Structures Project Manager
 FROM:  Nick Wark, Civil Engineer III
 DATE:  November 7, 2005
 SUBJECT:  Fairfield BHO 1448(32) - TH49 Br50

We have completed our preliminary hydraulic study for the above referenced site, and offer the following information for your use:

The existing 'Covered bridge was built in 1865. It is 67' long with a clear span of 59'. The bridge is built on laid-up stone abutments that have been repaired with concrete over the years. There are some large voids visible in the abutments. There is a large bend in the river just downstream of the bridge and an old miil dam that controls water sUlface elevations.

Our calculations show that the existing bridge is hydraulically adequate. The Q25 water surface elevation is 381.4' providing'1.6' offreeboard. The QI00 water surface elevation is 382.4'.

A USGS Level IT Scour Analysis was done for this structure 1998. The results show 3.1' of contraction ~cour at Q500. The foundation below the abutments is unknown, ifit is found that the abutments are still stable, repair is an option. If new abutments are constructed they should , be founded at least 6' below the streambed).or on ledge to prevent undermining.

Please contact us if you have any questions or if we may be of further assistance.

NJW

cc: Hydraulics Project File via MJT
Hydraulics ehrono File

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APPENDIX E
Archeological Resource Assessment

Hartgen
ARCHEOLOGICAL ASSOCIATES, INC.
Cultural Resource Specialists

PO BOX 81 PUTNEY, VERMONT 05346
PHONE: (802) 387-6020 FAX: (802) 387-8524


 Mr. Sean James, P.E.  RE:  Archeological Resource Assessment
 Hoyle Tanner & Assoc., Inc    Fairfield BHO 1448 (32)
 150 Dow Street    East Fairfield Covered Bridge Renovations
 Manchester, NH 03101    Town of Fairfield, Franklin County, VT
     
     March 27, 2006

Dear Sean,

      Hartgen Archeological Associates, Inc. (HAA, Inc.) recently completed a site visit and conducted research for an Archeological Resource Assessment (ARA) for the proposed East Fairfield Covered Bridge (Fairfield BHO 1448(32)) Renovation project in the Village of East Fairfield, Franklin County, Vermont. The East Fairfield Covered Bridge is constructed over Black Creek, and is located on Bridge Street (TH 49) between Route 38 to the northeast and TH 50 to the south (Figure 1). The Area of Potential Effect (APE) for the proposed bridge project is restricted to an area measuring approximately 250 feet (76 m) on either side of the bridge, north and south, and along the east and west sides ofTH 49.

      The Archeological Resource Assessment provides the information necessary to assess the potential for National Register Listed or Eligible archeological sites to be effected by the project. The ARA identifies potential areas of historic or pre contact sensitivity. The research and report conforms to the guidelines for archeological studies under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act, as defined by the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation (VDHP 2002), the Vermont Historic Preservation Act, and Act 250 (Peebles 1989). This letter report presents the results ofthe research and site visit and the ARA. Site reconnaissance was conducted by HAA, Inc. archeologist on March 17, 2006. The archeological report was written by project director, Elise Manning-Sterling and edited by principal investigator, Karen S. Hartgen. Graphics were prepared by Bruce B. Sterling.

CERTIFIED DBE/WBE IN NEW YORK, NEW JERSEY, MAINE, NEW HAMPSHIRE, VERMONT,
MASSACHUSETTS, CONNECTICUT, PENNSYLVANIA,
AND NEW YORK CITY AGENCIES


TELEPHONE (802) 387-6020              Email: ems@hartgen.com               FAX (802) 387-8524

ARA, E. Fairfield Covered Bridge Renovations, Fairfield BHO 1448 (32), Franklin Co., VT
East Fairfield Project Location
Figure 1. East Fairfield Project Location

Background Research

      The archeological investigation entailed research into the historic and precontact use of the project vicinity and its environs and the investigation of the archeological site files. The literature review for historic and precontact sites consisted of:

  • Research at the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation (VDHP) including:
    • archeological site files for sites within or adjacent to the project area
    • archeological surveys conducted on or near the project area
    • town and environmental project files
    • National Register listed archeological sites and standing structures located within or adjacent to the project area
    • archeological sites being considered for the National Register,
  • Research at the Vermont State Library and the Vermont Historical Society including:
    • historic maps and
    • review local histories of the project vicinity.

    Precontact Sites and Sensitivity

          East Fairfield is located in the narrow Black Creek valley in an area of low hills situated approximately 11 miles (17.5 km) east of St. Albans Bay on Lake Champlain, and located 6.5 miles (10 km) south of the Missisquoi River Valley. The East Fairfield Covered Bridge is located near falls along the Black Creek which were utilized and altered (through the creation of mill ponds) during the 19th century.

          Research at the VDHP revealed that there are no recorded archeological sites located within the project area or in the near vicinity. The dearth of recorded sites suggests that the area's use during pre contact times was limited. However, there are other factors which may account for this phenomenon, including the paucity of archeological surveys conducted in this area, the presence of low density precontact sites and/or seasonal or intermittent camp sites which were not used intensively.

          The VDHP predictive model form was used to determine the pre contact sensitivity of the project area (Appendix A). An evaluation of the project area produced a rating of 20, indicating that the general area has a low archeological sensitivity. However, the presence of level terrain in areas located on the southwest and northeast comers of the bridge directly adjacent to Black Creek and near the falls have an archeological sensitivity for the presence of precontact sites. Limited archeological testing would determine whether any intact archaeological resources are present in these two areas.

    Historic Archeological Sites and Sensitivity

          The background research revealed that no recorded archeological sites or cemeteries are located within the project area limits. The historic map research revealed that the bridge is situated over a historic mill pond associated with a grist mill and a saw mill which were located on the south side of the Black Creek west of the bridge.

    National Register Sites

          The East Fairfield Covered Bridge c.1865 is located on the National Register of Historic Places. The National Register nomination form notes that;

     The covered bridge at East Fairfield village is the only covered wood bridge remaining in the town of Fairfield. Built about 1865, the bridge and mill pond which it crosses are the only surviving elements of an early industrial complex beside the falls of Black Creek. .... The East Fairfield Covered Bridge consists of a single span supported by two flanking timber queenpost trusses. Each truss incorporates iron suspension rods which extend from upper apexes formed by the diagonal members to the bottom chords ..... The East Fairfield Bridge is 68 feet long overall and 16.5 feet wide. The bridge has a 13 foot roadway; its wood floor consists of planks laid flat and perpendicular to the trusses, beginning three feet inside the south portal.

          In 1995, a study was conducted for the East Fairfield Covered Bridge by McFarland-Johnson, Inc. for the State of Vermont Agency of Transportation as part of a long-range plan for the preservation of historic covered bridges of Vermont (McFarland-Johnson, Inc. 1995). To provide for the preservation of the East Fairfield Bridge, this study concluded that it should be closed to vehicular traffic, and necessary maintenance provided to avoid collapse prior to a course of extensive stabilization.

    Vermont State Register Sites

          There are ten structures in the Village of East Fairfield which are listed on the Vermont State Register, two of which are located within or adjacent to the project area.

          The East Fairfield Covered Bridge - built c. 1865.

          The Marshall True House (Ritchie Hotel) c. 1830. This was one of two hotels which provided services for the thriving industrial and commercial enterprises in the town of East Fairfield during the early and mid-19th century. This structure is located approximately 300 feet (92 m) southeast of the East Fairfield Covered Bridge, located on the east side of the road.

    Historic Maps and Sensitivity The 1858 Walling (Figure 2) and 1871 Beers (Figure 3) maps depict the village of East Fairfield and shows details of the project area. In 1858, the road (Bridge Street) was well established, with a store located northwest of the bridge and a residence situated northeast of the bridge. On the south side of the bridge, a mill complex was established west of the road which included a grist mill, a saw mill, and a store. A structure, the possible residence of H. S. Read, is shown located directly southeast of the bridge. The hotel is depicted further to the south on the east side of the road. The map does not indicate what type of bridge was present then.

    Project Area in 1857
    Figure 2. Project Area in 1857
    Project Area in 1871
    Figure 3. Project Area in 1871

          The 1871 Beers map demonstrates that the village and town had grown extensively over the previous decade, with many new roads established, and the construction of new residences, businesses, and mill complexes. Within the project area, the map shows a bridge extending over a mill pond on the Black Creek. This is presumably the East Fairfield Covered Bridge which was constructed c. 1865, although it is not specifically identified as such on the Beers map. Southwest of the bridge is the J.N. Pomeroy grist and saw mill complex. No structure is shown located on the southeast comer of the bridge as was depicted on the 1858 WaIling map. It is likely that this structure was removed or razed, possibly when there was expansion of the mill complex and mill ponds. The T. Ritchie Hotel is shown located further south of the bridge, situated on the east side of the road. On the north side of Black Creek, located on the east side of the road is the J.N. Pomeroy residence which is still extant. Northwest of the bridge, the J. C. Davis & Co. Store and Post Office was situated on the corner of Main and Bridge Streets.

    Project Area Site Reconnaissance and Recommendations
    View of Project Area
    Photo 1.View of project area southeast of the bridge
    View is to the northeast.

          On March 17,2006, a HAA, Inc. archeologist conducted a walkover of the project area in order to identify historic features, areas of archeological sensitivity, prior disturbance, excessive wetness, or excessive slope. The APE for the proposed bridge project is restricted to an area measuring approximately 250 feet (76 m) on either side of the bridge, north and south, and along the east and west sides of TH 49. At this time, there are no detailed project designs from which specific impact areas can be defined. Therefore, general recommendations are provided which pertain to the four areas located at each comer of the covered bridge.

          The area southeast of the bridge is characterized by a moderate to steep slope which inclines from the road downward to the Black Creek to the northeast (Photo 1). The T. Ritchie Hotel is located several hundred feet south of the bridge, outside of the Area of Potential Effect. The precontact archeological sensitivity of the area southeast of the bridge is considered to be low. No further archeological investigation is recommended for this area.
    View southwest1
    Photo 2. View of the project area southwest of the bridge. View is to the north.
    View northeast
    Photo 3. View of the project area northeast of the bridge. View is to the south
    View northwest1
    Photo 4. View of the project area northwest of the bridge. View is to the north.

          The area southwest of the bridge is a relatively flat terrace overlooking the Black Creek and mill pond. The area is primarily overgrown with low brush, and contains a short modem drive/turn- around area (Photo 2). Based on historic maps, this area was part of the J.N. Pomeroy mill complex, and has archeological sensitivity for historic resources. Portions of this terrace which were undisturbed during the historic use of this area would have potential for the presence of precontact material. It is recommended that archeological testing be conducted in this area prior to construction or stabilization. Recommended archeological investigation would consist of the excavation of several shovel tests in the proposed impact area.

          The area northeast of the bridge is a residential parcel which contains a 19th -century house (J.N. Pomeroy residence)(Photo 3). The lawn is level to gently sloping downward toward the Black Creek At its northern end, the bridge is raised on a high abutment above the surrounding lawn and ground surface. The grass lawn area is considered to have a moderate archeological sensitivity for the presence of precontact resources. It is recommended that archeological testing be conducted if there will be substantial impacts to the adjacent lawn area. Recommended archeological investigation would consist of the excavation of several shovel tests in the proposed impact area.

          The area northwest of the bridge is a narrow residential parcel which contains a 19th-century residence (Photo 4). The area directly northwest of the bridge is a lawn area which slopes downward to the Black Creek. Because of the moderate slope, this area is considered to have a low archeological sensitivity for precontact resources. No further archeological investigation is recommended for this area.

    Sincerely,

    Elise H. Manning-Sterling





    Bibliography

    Beers, F. W.
          1871 Atlas of Franklin and Grand Isle Counties, Vermont. F.W. Beers, New York.

    McFarland-Johnson, Inc.
          1995 Covered Bridge Study at East Fairfield Bridge, Bridge No. 50 Town Highway 49, Town of Fairfield Franklin County. Prepared for the State of Vermont Agency of Transportation. Report on file at the Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, Montpelier, Vermont.

    Peebles, Giovanna

          1989 Guidelines for Archeological Studies in Vermont Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, Montpelier, Vermont.

    United States Geological Survey (USGS)

          1986 Bakersfield, Vermont 7.5' Topographic Quadrangle. United States Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.

    Vermont Division for Historic Preservation

          2002 The Vermont State Historic Preservation Office's Guidelines for Conducting Archeology in Vermont. Vermont Division for Historic Preservation, Montpelier, Vermont.

    Walling, H.P.

          1857 Map of Franklin and Grand Isle Counties, Vermont. Baker & Tilden: New York.

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    Joe Nelson, P.O Box 267, Jericho, VT 05465-0267
    This file posted 01/01/2008